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第十单元翻译答案
作者: 发表日期:2005-11-25 浏览次数:

第十单元答案

 

二、学翻译

1. 嗟来之食

译文三种:

 

(1) Holla, Come and Eat!

There was a severe famine, in Qi. Qian Ao had food ready at the roadside for the starvelings to eat. A famished man appeared staggeringly, covered his face with the sleeve because of shame, his shoes flapping. He was halted by Qian Ao, who held food in his left hand and drink in the right, saying: “Holla, come, you.” The man raised his eyes and looked at him. “I have become thus only because I don’t want to eat anything given in such a manner,” he said. So Qian Ao made an immediate apology to him for not being so polite at first, but still the man refused to take any food and died with hunger at last.                                                  (Qian Gechuan)

 

(2) Food Handed Out in Contempt

Now it happened that there was a great famine throughout the State of Qi. A man by the name of Qian Ao set up a charity kitchen on the roadside to feed the starving passers-by.

   Then came a hungry man, trudging along in tattered shoes, with a sleeve raised to hide his face and eyes that looked vague and dim. With a bowl of food in his left hand and soup in his right, Qian Ao shouted, “Hey, come over and eat.” The man opened wide his eyes and looked, then said: “I have never eaten any food handed out in contempt. And just because of that, I am now a hungry man, as you see.”

   Hearing this, Qian Ao made an apology to him. But the man still refused to eat, and eventually he starved to death.                                                             (Yang Liyi)

 

(3) A Matter of Dignity

There was a great famine in the state of Qi. Qian Ao, a rich man of Qi, prepared food by the roadside for the hungry to come and eat.

   Along came a starving man, his sleeves covering his head, his hempen sandals held together by string, walking as if he did not know where he was going. With food in his left hand and drink his right, Qian Ao shouted at him.

   “Hey you! Come and eat!”

   The man lifted his eyes and stared at Qian.

   “I am reduced to this state just because I refuse to take anything from loudmouthed people giving away food,” he said.

   Qian immediately begged his pardon but the man still refused to eat and eventually starved to death.                                                                     (K. L. Kiu)

 

2. 苛政猛于虎

译文三种:

 

(1) Oppressive Government is more Terrible than Tigers

In passing by the side of Mount Tai, Confucius came on a woman who was wailing bitterly by a grave. The Master bowed forward to the crossbar, and listened to her, and then sent Zilu to question her. “Your wailing,” said he, “is altogether like that of one has suffered sorrow upon sorrow.” She replied, “It is so. Formerly, my husband’s father was killed here by a tiger. My husband was killed (by another), and now my son has died in the same way.” The Master said, “Why do you not leave the place?” The answer was, “There is no oppressive government here.” The Master said (to the disciples), “Remember this, my little children. Oppressive government is more terrible than tigers.”                                                                       (James Legge)

 

(2) Tyranny Is Fiercer than a Tiger

Confucius was passing by at the foot of Taishan Mountain when he heard a woman wailing before a grave. As he bent over the front bar of his carriage listening with concern, he sent his disciple Zi Lu over to inquire.

   “From your crying we presume you have met many misfortunes,” Zi Lu said to the woman.

   “Exactly. Some time ago my father-in-law was killed by a tiger, then later my husband, and now my son,” the woman responded.

   “Then, why hasn’t she chosen to quit this place?” Wondered Confucius, putting this question to her through Zi Lu.

   “Because this place is not plagued by tyranny,” came the woman’s answer.

   At this Confucius admonished his disciples, “Keep this in mind – tyranny is indeed fiercer than a tiger.”                                                                 (Yang Liyi)

 

(3) More Threatening than Tigers

As Confucius was passing near Tai Mountain, he saw a woman weeping bitterly in front of a grave. He leaned forward to listen, resting his hand on the wooden bar of his carriage. Zilu, his pupil, was sent to ask the woman what the matter was.

   “From your weeping it seems that you have many sorrows.”

   “That is true. In the past my father-in-law was killed by a tiger. My husband was also killed by a tiger. Now my son too is killed.”

   “Then why don’t you leave this place?” asked Confucius.

   “There is no tyrannical government here,” came the reply.

   “Take note, all of you,” said Confucius, “a tyrannical government is more threatening than tigers.”                                                                         (K. L. Kiu)

 

3. 黔驴技穷

译文二种:

 

(1) When a Donkey Has Exhausted Its Tricks

Guizhou was a place where donkeys were not bred. A man full of fancy ideas shipped one there, but when it arrived he found it was not of much use. Therefore, he took it to the mountain area and left it there.

   Then a tiger saw it and, impressed by its size, took it to be a mysterious creature. So, he hid himself in the woods to steal a good look at it. By and by he came out and tried to approach it with great caution, though still not sure what it was.

   One day, the donkey brayed. Shocked, the tiger fled far away in extreme fear, thinking it was going to bite him. While keeping at a distance, he paced to and fro and watched, only to find that it had no special powers. Gradually used to its bray, the tiger got nearer and walked around the donkey. Nevertheless, he still dared not attack it. Then, going still nearer, he tried flirtation with it, and even went as far as touching it, leaning on it, bumping at it and provoking it. The donkey could not withhold its anger and gave the tiger a kick. At this the tiger rejoiced because he calculated that that was all it could do. Then he leaped on it, roaring, and gnawed at its throat. Having eaten the donkey’s whole flesh, the tiger went off contented.               (Yang Liyi)

 

(2) The Donkey of Guizhou

There were no donkeys in Guizhou until someone officious took one there by boat; but finding no use for it he set it loose in the hills. A tiger saw this monstrous looking beast thought it must be divine. It first surveyed the donkey from under cover, then ventured a little nearer, still keeping a respectful distance however.

   One day the donkey brayed. The tiger took fright and fled for fear of being bitten, in utter terror. But it came back for another look, and decided this creature was not so formidable after all. Then growing used to the braying it drew nearer, though it still dared not attack. Coming nearer still, it began to take liberties, shoving, jostling, and charging roughly, till the donkey lost its temper and kicked out.

   “So that’s all it can do!” thought the tiger jubilantly.

   Then it leapt on the donkey and sank its teeth into it, severing its throat and devouring it before going on its way.                                                            (Yang Xianyi and Gladys Yang)

 

4. 叶公好龙

译文二种:

 

(1) Lord Ye’s Professed Love of Dragons

Lord Ye, whose name was Zigao, was so fond of dragons that the pendant on his robe and his drinking cup both took the shape of a dragon, and even the decorations and carvings in his house all bore the design of this mythical animal. On learning all this, the Dragon in the Heaven descended from on high to pay him a visit. It poked its head in at the window and swung its tail into the hall of the house of Lord Ye. At sight of the dragon, he immediately turned and took to his heels. He was scared out of his wits and turned quite pale and white-lipped.

   It was not that Lord Ye really loved dragons; what he did love was something in the shape of a dragon – all but a real one.                                                                           (Yang Liyi)

 

(2) The Real Thing

Lord Ye, styled Zigao, was fond of dragons. He had dress ornaments and wine cups with the pattern of dragons, and all the carvings in the rooms of his house were in the shape of dragons. As a result, the real dragon heard about this and came down to his house. It stuck its head through a window to take a peep while trailing its tail in the hall. Lord Ye saw it and turned to flee with a terrified look on his face, frightened out of his wits.

   This man was not really fond of dragons. He was only fond of what looked like a dragon but was not a dragon in reality.                                                                            (K. L. Kiu)

 

三、作业

1. The Romance of the Three Kingdoms, the earliest historical novel in China, was written in the 14th century. The original script of the novel is no longer in existence. The version most popular today was re-edited in the 17th century. Luo Guanzhong (1330-1400), the author, was a native of Taiyuan, Shanxi Province. He was said to have written dozens of works. The book is based on the history of the late Eastern Han Dynasty and the subsequent warfare between the three kingdoms of Wei, Shu and Wu. It covers the main events in almost a century from 184 to 280. The work, with over 700,000 words, comprises 120 chapters, the first few chapters describing the contention between the various warlords, the rest, the conflicts between the three powers and the final unification of the country. There are more than 400 characters in the book. The novel depicts crafty intrigues between political cliques. It also describes the endless battles and campaigns launched between them. The account of the battle of Red Cliff which took place in the year 208 AD plays an important part in the book. Cao Cao, founder of Wei, led 200,000 soldiers south in an attempt to conquer the southern warlords and unify the whole country. They were stopped by the joint forces, 50,000 strong, of Liu Bei and Sun Quan, who made use of the Yangtze River as a natural barrier, and struck a telling blow at the enemy at Red Cliff.

 

2. Outlaws of the Marsh, written by Luo Guanzhong and Shi Nai’an, is one of the most popular Chinese classics. It is set mainly between the years 1101 and 1125, during the reign of Emperor Hui Zong of the Song Dynasty. The book is about why and how one hundred and eight men and women banded together on a mountain surrounded by marshes in what today is Shandong Province, and fought against government troops and local despots.

   During the many centuries of feudal rule in China, there were peasant revolts in almost every dynasty. Outlaws of the Marsh is the first panoramic novel to have portrayed the full course of such a revolt from its start to its defeat. The novel depicts how the desire for personal revenge led the heroes to join forces in a great uprising. One of them is Wu Song, whose story is known to every household in China. He was a hero who killed a tiger with his bare fists and revenged his brother’s death.

   Very little is known about the author Shi Nai’an. He is said to be from Suzhou, and a contemporary of Luo Guanzhong. Since the publication of the book, numerous editions have appeared, and disputes over the authorship and authenticity and the dates of editions continue to this day.

 

3. Pilgrimage to the West is a well-known mythological novel, written in its present form in the 16th century. The author, Wu Cheng’en (1500-1582), was from the family of a small tradesman, in Huai’an, Jiangsu Province. Although he was an intelligent and well-read scholar, he never did well in the imperial examinations. He was a man of great humour and was fond of jest. He wrote several books of fiction and enjoyed a good reputation in his lifetime. This book was written in his last years.

   The book relates the amazing adventures of the priest Xuanzang (also called Sanzang, meaning Tripitaka in Buddhism) and his disciples Monkey, Pigsy and Sandy, as they travelled west in search of Buddhist sutras. It has a hundred chapters. The first seven describe how Monkey came into the world, attained magic powers and played havoc in heaven. The five chapters from chapter eight onwards describe the preparations of the pilgrimage to find Buddhist sutras. The remaining eighty-odd chapters deal with the pilgrimage itself and Monkey’s triumph over the monsters and demons which the pilgrims encountered on the way. Monkey is the most brilliant figure in the novel.

 

4. Song Dynasty short stories indicate a further development in Chinese fiction. They give a fuller picture of real society and life. In these stories people with extraordinary qualities and abilities and legendary figures appear less frequently. In contrast, ordinary people such as peddlers, craftsmen, maids, servants, monks, and nuns become the main characters. The subject matter and content are even richer than those of Tang short stories. They include, for example, stories of love, intrigue and detection, changes of fortune, and accounts of peasant revolts, mirroring all aspects of life. These stories contain more descriptions of everyday life instead of the mythic, fantastic, and marvellous. Whenever the supernatural is involved, it is written in most cases as the real belief of the people rather than episodes deliberately made up by the author to create a certain atmosphere. Since the storytellers were very familiar with the urban class, the stories give intimate descriptions of their lives, showing their ideas, interests, and desires. Likes and dislikes, joys and sorrows were shared by authors and readers.

(以上取自陈家宁编《中国古典小说精选》汉英对照本,新世界出版社1990年版)

 

5. Confucius said, “Everyone desires money and high position, but a gentleman would not accept them unless he got them in a right way. Everyone hates poverty and low status, but a gentleman would not get rid of them in an unjust way. How can one be called a gentleman if one betrays benevolence? Under no circumstances should a gentleman forget to practice benevolence.” (赖波、夏玉和译)

 

6. 给小说的任何一个“面”下个定义,最为简单易行的办法,总是从考虑它对读者提出何种要求入手。故事要求读者有好奇心,人物要求读者有人情味和价值观念,情节要求读者具备智力和记性。那么,幻想对我们提出了一些什么要求呢?它要求我们做出另外一些努力。它迫使我们进行一种额外的心理调整。别的小说家对我们说,“这儿是一些也许会在你们的生活里发生的事情,”而幻想小说家却对我们说,“这儿是一些不可能发生的事情。我首先得要求你们把我的小说看作一个整体来接受。其次,我要求你们接受小说里的某些东西。”许多读者能够应允他的第一个要求,但是不肯顺从他的第二个要求。他们说:“我们知道小说里讲到的内容并非真有其事,但是我们仍然希望它让人读起来感到自然,至于小说里提到的天使或者侏儒或者鬼魂或者婴儿出生时莫名其妙的耽搁等等——不,要我们把这些都信以为真,则未免太过分了。”他们或者把原来已经做出的让步收回去,从此不再阅读下去,或者虽然继续阅读,却抱着完全冷漠的态度来对待小说里的内容。他们冷眼观看作者施展他的浑身解数,却并不觉得他在玩的那些把戏可能会对他有着多大的意义。(朱乃长译)