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2003-04学年第一学期翻译试题及答案
作者: 发表日期:2005-11-25 浏览次数:

北京林业大学2003~2004学年第一学期
[ 翻  译 ] 试卷
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一、将下面短文译成汉语。(50分)
 
    The latest trend in tourism is travel that combines preserving the natural world and sustaining the well-being of the human cultures that inhabit it. Known as ecotourism, the industry was unknown a decade ago yet now receives rave reviews from environmentally conscious travelers who immerse themselves in pristine places and authentic experiences. Unlike traditional tourism, ecotourism promotes environmentally responsible travel and seeks to ensure that visitors “take nothing but photographs and leave behind nothing but footprints.” An equally important part of the ecotourism equation is “sustainable” tourism that enables local people to protect their natural and cultural resources and profit from them at the same time. The truly “green” traveler also emphasizes the necessity for tours that strictly limit group size, coordinate with native guides, and donate a percentage of tour profits to community projects or research.
    Varying interpretations and definitions of ecotourism currently exist. The ecotourism umbrella seems to shelter all kinds of outdoor travel-related products—from beach hotels that happen to be near a rain forest to a national park visit, guided bird-watching, or scientist-led Antarctic cruising. It also encompasses adventure expeditions, such as trekking and river rafting, as well as less rigorous trips to culturally exotic or archaeologically important locations.
The general concept of ecotourism arose when conservationists realized the potential benefits in combining people’s interest in nature with their concern for the environment. An early model for ecotourism came from East Africa in the 1970s, when Kenya began collecting fees from safari-bound tourists heading into its national parks. Those revenues were earmarked to support conservation and park maintenance in its vast wildlife preserves.
    According to the World Tourism Organization, Kenya developed a good thing. In an early national parks study, the organization determined that each lion in Kenya's Amboseli Park was worth $27,000 per year in tourism revenues to local tribes and an elephant herd about $610,000. A complementary investigation by Wildlife Conservation International showed that as a refuge the park was valued at $18 per acre per year compared with 36 cents per acre under the most optimistic agricultural returns. Certainly such dramatic figures contributed to the saying Wildlife Pays, So Wildlife Stays.
 
 
二、将下面短文译成英语。(50分)
 
    语言与文化的关系问题是学术界讨论的热门话题之一。虽然讨论者的观点和角度各不相同,但大都把它放在跨文化交际学研究的范围内,主要依据是语言工具论的观点。然而,随着人类对语言研究的不断深入,学术界已开始逐渐认识到:语言不可能只是一个简单的交际工具。在人与人的交际过程中,语言在传递信息、转达思想时,又会以各种方式使所传递的信息和转达的思想变形,并对它们加以不同程度的限制。因此,我们不能把语言简单地看成是反映社会文化生活的一面镜子,语言与文化的关系不可能仅仅是反映与被反映的关系。其实,任何文化活动,甚至人的思维,均要受到语言的制约。人类的文化遗产大多数是通过语言文本保存下来的。比如,我们所说的历史是语言文本化了的历史,我们所说的哲学思想也是以语言形式呈现出来的。
 
 

2003-04学年第一学期英语专业翻译试卷答案
 
 
一、英译汉:50分
    旅游的最新时尚是把保护自然界和保持自然界中人类文化的完好结合起来。十年前,生态旅游这一产业还鲜为人知,如今却已为那些环境意识较强但又能亲身经历质朴的乡野情趣者所津津乐道。
    与传统旅游不同的是,生态旅游提倡对环境负责的旅游方式,努力确保游客“带走的只有照片,留下的只有足迹”。生态旅游的另一个重要方面是旅游的“可持续性”,使当地人既能保护自己的自然和文化资源不被破坏,又能利用这些资源获得收益。真正的“绿色”旅游者还认为有必要严格控制旅游团的人数,还要与当地导游认真协调,并将旅游收益的一部分捐献给当地,用于社区规划与研究。
对于生态旅游的内涵,目前有各种各样的解释和界定。生态旅游这一招牌似乎可以囊括所有与户外旅游相关的产品,从碰巧建在雨林附近的海滨酒店到参观国家公园、有导游的观鸟或由科学家带队的南极巡游。还应该包括探险远征,如跋涉和漂流等。到具有奇特异域文化和重要考古发现的地方游历也在其列。
    生态旅游概念的出现是由于自然资源保护论者意识到,如果把人们对于自然的兴趣和他们对于环境的关注结合起来,一定有利可图。20世纪70年代,在非洲东部出现了最早的生态旅游模式。当时肯尼亚开始对涌入其国家公园观看野生动物的游客收费,并将收入所得列入专项经费,用于补贴该国大面积野生生物资源保护区的保持和国家公园的维护。
按照世界旅游组织的观点,肯尼亚做了一件好事。该组织在一项早期的国家公园研究中确定,肯尼亚安波赛里公园的每只狮子每年给当地部族带来的旅游收益是27000美元,而一个象群就能够带来每年61万美元的旅游收益。国际野生生物资源保护组织所做的一项补充调查表明,国家公园作为野生动物的庇护所每年每公顷面积价值为18美元,而在最乐观的情况下,每年每公顷的农业收益只有36美分。数字差异如此悬殊,难怪人们要说:野生生物自足就能自在。
 
二、汉译英:50分
    The relationship between language and culture is one of the hot issues being discussed by academic circles. Though it is approached from different perspectives, it mainly falls into the category of cross-cultural communication studies, based on the viewpoint that language, after all, is used as a tool. However, with a better understanding of language, academic circles have come to realize that language cannot be regarded as only a simple tool of communication. While transmitting messages and conveying thoughts, language can change and defile them in varying degrees. Therefore, we must not simply regard language as a mirror reflecting the society and culture. The relationship between language and culture cannot be only one between the reflecting and the reflected. As a result, any culture and even thinking are inevitably influenced by language. It is by means of written texts that most of the human’s cultural heritage is preserved. History and philosophy, for example, are both passed on by written texts.