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作者: 发表日期:2005-11-25 浏览次数:

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    The latest trend in tourism is travel that combines preserving the natural world and sustaining the well-being of the human cultures that inhabit it. Known as ecotourism, the industry was unknown a decade ago yet now receives rave reviews from environmentally conscious travelers who immerse themselves in pristine places and authentic experiences. Unlike traditional tourism, ecotourism promotes environmentally responsible travel and seeks to ensure that visitors “take nothing but photographs and leave behind nothing but footprints.” An equally important part of the ecotourism equation is “sustainable” tourism that enables local people to protect their natural and cultural resources and profit from them at the same time. The truly “green” traveler also emphasizes the necessity for tours that strictly limit group size, coordinate with native guides, and donate a percentage of tour profits to community projects or research.
    Varying interpretations and definitions of ecotourism currently exist. The ecotourism umbrella seems to shelter all kinds of outdoor travel-related products—from beach hotels that happen to be near a rain forest to a national park visit, guided bird-watching, or scientist-led Antarctic cruising. It also encompasses adventure expeditions, such as trekking and river rafting, as well as less rigorous trips to culturally exotic or archaeologically important locations.
The general concept of ecotourism arose when conservationists realized the potential benefits in combining people’s interest in nature with their concern for the environment. An early model for ecotourism came from East Africa in the 1970s, when Kenya began collecting fees from safari-bound tourists heading into its national parks. Those revenues were earmarked to support conservation and park maintenance in its vast wildlife preserves.
    According to the World Tourism Organization, Kenya developed a good thing. In an early national parks study, the organization determined that each lion in Kenya's Amboseli Park was worth $27,000 per year in tourism revenues to local tribes and an elephant herd about $610,000. A complementary investigation by Wildlife Conservation International showed that as a refuge the park was valued at $18 per acre per year compared with 36 cents per acre under the most optimistic agricultural returns. Certainly such dramatic figures contributed to the saying Wildlife Pays, So Wildlife Stays.

    The relationship between language and culture is one of the hot issues being discussed by academic circles. Though it is approached from different perspectives, it mainly falls into the category of cross-cultural communication studies, based on the viewpoint that language, after all, is used as a tool. However, with a better understanding of language, academic circles have come to realize that language cannot be regarded as only a simple tool of communication. While transmitting messages and conveying thoughts, language can change and defile them in varying degrees. Therefore, we must not simply regard language as a mirror reflecting the society and culture. The relationship between language and culture cannot be only one between the reflecting and the reflected. As a result, any culture and even thinking are inevitably influenced by language. It is by means of written texts that most of the human’s cultural heritage is preserved. History and philosophy, for example, are both passed on by written texts.